My papillon Misti lives in Hawaii with my mother. I had to leave her behind when I moved to Boston nine years ago, but I'm glad that she's made a good companion for Mom. We took Misti to obedience training when she was a puppy. The methods we were taught were a mix of traditional and positive, but thankfully we never used anything as punitive as a choke collar, prong collar, or shock collar. The idea of using such items on a 5- or 6-pound toy dog like Misti is downright barbaric. After reading various publications on dog behavior and training over the years, I've come to believe that these sorts of "tools" shouldn't be used on a canine of any size.
Unfortunately, there are trainers out there who do use and advocate old school training techniques, which probably makes it difficult for people to understand or be aware of the fact that there's a different and better way of doing things. Furthermore, there are a lot of impatient dog owners out there who want a quick fix to their pets' behavior issues and decide that harsh methods will do the trick. (They're really not that effective, and they can actually exacerbate the problems.) I took a psychology class on learning and behavior in college. The course was helpful to me as an introduction to the basic principles involved in how animals operate. I wish all dog trainers were required to take such classes and be certified as behaviorists, but unfortunately I'm fairly certain that that's not the case.
In her book Positive Perspectives: Love Your Dog, Train Your Dog, Pat Miller writes: "Traditional training methods have often relied on human logic to teach dogs how to behave, by punishing the dog for 'bad' behavior. But to our dogs, behavior is neither good nor bad; they are just doing what dogs do, driven by instinct and governed by the consequences of their actions." Herein lies the problem. Most people don't understand dog behavior and how they learn. They follow general concepts, such as the misguided notion that they need to dominate their dogs and act as the alpha. There's a common misconception that Pat Miller discusses in her book. The scenario goes something like this: You come home and discover that your kitchen trash can has been overturned and the contents are strewn everywhere. You are furious. Your dog, clearly the culprit in the midst of the mess, looks so darned guilty. He obviously knows he did something wrong. Why else would he look like he knows he's responsible? Well, he's afraid—not guilty. You are mad, and he is trying to appease you and escape your anger. A lot of people might decide to punish their dog on the spot. The poor dog in that case has no idea why he's being reprimanded because he rifled through the garbage earlier in the day. "Behaviorists agree," Miller writes, "that a reward or punishment must be delivered in close time-proximity, preferably one second or less, to the behavior you are trying to increase or decrease."
Clicker training is a method I've used that gives a dog a clear indication of behaviors you like and want to continue. It tells the dog specifically what you want by pairing a reward for a behavior with a "click" you make with a small device called a clicker. If the dog offers a behavior you don't want, you don't reward it and that behavior eventually disappears. It's a completely positive method that many trainers use. (Dolphin trainers employ this type of training, but they use a whistle instead of a clicker because it's easier for the animals to hear if they're underwater.) This is only a nutshell summary of the method, and there are obviously other components and aspects of positive training that I haven't gone into here. This post would take far too long for me to compose if I were to try to make it comprehensive, and many of the resources you can find do a far better job than I ever could of explaining the various ideas and techniques related to positive training.
The bottom line is that I hope any dog lovers who are reading this—and who don't know much about it—will familiarize themselves with training that's based on positive methods. There are lots of great books out there, but a couple in my collection are The Culture Clash by Jean Donaldson and The Other End of the Leash by Patricia McConnell, Ph.D. Additionally, I maintain a subscription to The Whole Dog Journal, which is a solid resource on training and other useful information, and I'm a faithful viewer of It's Me or the Dog with trainer Victoria Stilwell. Please take the time to learn for yourself what I'm talking about. If you train smarter and not harder, you'll be happier and so will your dog.